A ship life cycle is usually set at 25 years, but the actual age of (for example) the short sea fleet is higher. On the other hand the life cycle of ship systems and major components is much shorter, this because of the ever faster technological developments that are often driven by societal requirements for safety and the protection of the environment. In general, 10-15 years after launching the ship main systems are outdated.

Considering already existing regulations on Nox / Sox limitations and anticipating on expected CO2 – related sanctions and/or costs and other ongoing developments such as the “Ship energy efficiency management plan”, it is worthwhile to have available methods and tools which allow to assess the impact of emission- related regulations on own operations now and in mid-term future.

Summarizing, while waterborne transport market conditions alone might not justify the replacing of elderly technology in ships by new ones (retrofitting), national and international policies fostering a general reduction of energy usage and emissions could and will within 5-6 years (or earlier) issue new regulations on energy efficiency and emission reduction even to a point of having ship operators pay for CO2 production.